THE PENN STATE MEDIEVAL GARDEN

Commentarius

Persons of Interest

little leaf Link to Culpepper's Degrees of Medicine

little leaf Link to Sacred Saxon Herbs

Often found in the period herbals used to research the plants in this website are references to persons other than the current authors. It appears that some of this was done to give credit to earlier compliers of information but most often to lend greater weight to contents of the writers work by stressing a connection to the notable authors of earlier works. Some of these persons are noted below.

Banke of Bancke's Herbal: Anonymus writer produced a volume of work without illustrations. First herbal printed in England. Printed by Rycharde Banches, 1525, London.

Culpeper, Nicholas (18 October 1616 - 10 January 1654) was an English botanist, herbalist, physician, and astrologer. His published books include The English Physician (1652) and the Complete Herbal (1653), which contain a rich store of pharmaceutical and herbal knowledge. Culpeper spent the greater part of his life in the English outdoors cataloging hundreds of medicinal herbs. He criticized what he considered the unnatural methods of his contemporaries, writing: "This not being pleasing, and less profitable to me, I consulted with my two brothers, DR. REASON and DR. EXPERIENCE, and took a voyage to visit my mother NATURE, by whose advice, together with the help of Dr. DILIGENCE, I at last obtained my desire; and, being warned by MR. HONESTY, a stranger in our days, to publish it to the world, I have done it." (2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_Culpeper

Pedanius Dioscorides - 40AD to 90AD Dioscorides - (Pedanius Dioscorides) 40AD to 90AD (Dates vary). Born in Cilicia, Asia Minor, this Greek botanist and physician traveled with the Roman armies and collected information the use of plants and minerals. He compiled this information into a five volume set called De Materia Medica. Contents of this work were copied and used in numerous herbals up to and through the Middle Ages. The work includes approximately 600 plants in all, many with obscure names that would have otherwise been lost. The original volume is no in existance. The earliest version is from the 6th century and is known as the Codex Vindobonensis.

Dodens, Rembert (1517-1585 CE): Produced an herbal in 1554 called the Cruydeboeck with images of 715 plants. Discussed in detail the use of herbs for medicinal purposes. Said to be heavily influenced by Leonhart Fuchs. Translated into English in 1578.

Galen of Pergamon, 129-200 CE Galen - (Galen of Pergamon, 129-200 CE): Physician and philosopher, added greatly to the knowledge of anatomy, pathology, pharmacology, neurology, as well as philosophy and logic. Followers of the Theory of Humors, as developed and advanced by the early Greeks including Hippocrates

Gerard, John - (also known as John Gerarde, 1545-1611 or 1612) was an English herbalist notable for his herbal garden and botany writing. In 1597 he published a large and heavily illustrated Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes, which went on to be the most widely circulated botany book in English in the 17th century. Except for the additions of several plants from his own garden and from North America, Gerard's Herbal is essentially an English translation of Rembert Dodoens Herbal of 1554, itself also highly popular (in Dutch, Latin, French and other English translation). A couple of decades after Gerard's death, his Herbal was corrected and expanded, which strengthened the book's position in the 17th century.(1)

Hippocrates -(Hippokrates of Kos, 460 - 370 BCE): Greek physican known as "The father of Western Medicine". Helped to establish medicine as a profession and the originator of the Hippocratic Oath. Developed the school of thought that diseases were caused naturally and not because of witchcraft, superstition or actions by the gods.

Matthiolus, Pietro Andrea ( 1501 - 1577CE): Doctor and naturalist. Wrote a commentary on Dioscorides De Materia Medica and described 100 new plants as part of his work. Some plants had no medical properties and so marks a departure from the study of plants as a part of medicine to the study of plants as botony.

Pliny the Elder - (23-79 CE): Author of Naturalis Historia, 37 volume work which, along with De Materia Medica, is one of the most cited of the classical texts on medicinal uses of plants. Work also contained myths and folklore.

Saint Hildegard of Bingen, O.S.B. (German: Hildegard von Bingen; Latin: Hildegardis Bingensis) (1098 - 17 September 1179), also known as Saint Hildegard, and Sibyl of the Rhine, was a German writer, composer, philosopher, Christian mystic, Benedictine abbess, visionary, and polymath. Elected a magistra by her fellow nuns in 1136, she founded the monasteries of Rupertsberg in 1150 and Eibingen in 1165. One of her works as a composer, the Ordo Virtutum, is an early example of liturgical drama and arguably the oldest surviving morality play. She wrote theological, botanical and medicinal texts, as well as letters, liturgical songs, and poems, while supervising brilliant miniature Illuminations.

Theophrastus (371 - 287 BCE): Theophrastus (371 - 287 BCE): Considered to be the "Father of Botany" due to his work on plants. Studied with Aristotle. Most of his writings have been lost and are only known due to references in other, more current works.




Enclosed Mary Garden with a large variety of identifiable plants
Enclosed Mary Garden with a large
variety of identifiable plants.

Culpeper, Nicholas (18 October 1616 - 10 January 1654)
Culpeper, Nicholas
(18 October 1616 - 10 January 1654)


Dodens, Rembert (1517-1585 CE)
Dodens, Rembert
(1517-1585 CE)




Gerard, John - (also known as John Gerarde, 1545-1611 or 1612)
Gerard, John
(also known as John Gerarde, 1545-1611 or 1612)




Saint Hildegard of Bingen
Saint Hildegard of Bingen